1. University of Virginia
  2. Arts & Sciences

Course Descriptions - Fall 2004

Courses that meet Major Area Requirements:

Prin. of Social Analysis Ethnography Archaeology Linguistics
223,224,225,232,326,332,
355,385,529a,529b,529c,577
260,305,339,352,
363,365,406
280,371,384
587,592
242,243,341
347,542,543
Non-Western perspectives for the majors 
(for the major: note that some of these courses do not meet the College's Nonwestern requirement)
101,224,232,332,341,352,363
Senior Seminars 
401A, 401B, 401C

Undergraduate Courses:

 ANTH 101 INTRO TO ANTHROPOLOGY (3) MENTORE
MW 1100-1150

In this course we will introduce how and why anthropology examines the uniformities and regularities it perceives as existing in social life -- the perceived order that members of society produce so as to live together. We will read, write, and talk about these instances of eradicated contradictions not as isolated and self-contained institutions but as part of a meaningful and systemic thought process. The study of kinship and marriage, love and moral obligation, economic production and exchange, religious beliefs and values, as well as political power and its distribution will be our principal topics. 

Students must enroll in one of the discussions sections in 101D. Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

ANTH 223 FANTASY & SOCIAL VALUES (3) WAGNER
TR 0930-1045

An examination of imaginary societies, in particular those in science fiction novels, to see how they reflect the problems and tensions of real social life. Attention is given to "alternate cultures" and fictional societal models. A "cultural imaginary" allows us to think carefully about implications of gender, technology, and social existence that we, for very good reasons, are not allowed to experiment upon. Three papers, mandatory attendance in lecture.

ANTH 224 PROGRESS (3) METCALF
MW 1100-1150

Westerners have been deeply attached to the idea of progress since the Enlightenment. But it is not universal; elsewhere and at other times people have seen a world in decline from a Golden Age. In the 19th century rapid technological development inspired an almost limitless confidence in progress, but at the same time the success of evolutionary theories introduced a more somber note of extinction for those left behind in the struggle. This course raises a series of questions about our notion of progress: What are its ideological roots? How is technical progress related to social or moral progress? At the beginning of a new century, what threats undermine our confidence in progress? The course includes two lectures per week plus a discussion section.

Students must enroll in one of the discussions sections in 224D. Meets College's Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

ANTH 225 NATIONALISM, RACISM MULTICULTURALISM (3) HANDLER
TR 1230-1345

Introductory course in which the concepts of culture, multiculturalism, race, racism, and nationalism are critically examined in terms of how they are used and structure social relations in American society and, by comparison, how they are defined in other cultures throughout the world.

Students may enroll in one of the optional discussion sections in 225D.

ANTH 232 SYMBOL & RITUAL (3) SIHLE 
TR 1530-1620

This is an introductory course to the anthropology of religion. Drawing from a broad sample of ethnographic texts on religious forms ranging from "world religions" to those of small-scale, non-literate societies, we will ask fundamental questions about religion and society, ritual, and religious symbolism, and examine how far we have come to answering them in a century of theorizing.

Student must enroll in one of the discussion sections in 232D. Fills the Non-Western Perspectives Requirement

 

ANTH 237 CULTURE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY (3) SAPIR 
MWF 1100-1150

This course is blocked out into three sections: (1) The nature of photography. What form of communication is it and what is unique about it? How do we "read" photographs and why are they always so ambiguous? What are the motivations for snapshots? (2) A survey of the history of photography from its invention at the beginning of the 19th century to the introduction of the Kodak in the 1880's; beyond that if time permits. Subjects to be covered: the people involved with the invention of photography; the early photographic processes; photographs of places in the world; "views;" photographs of individuals, "likenesses;" photographs of the "the other;" photographs in the archives - surveillance and the "criminal type," "genre photography;" photography as an art in the early years until the first decades of the 20th century. The work of general nature of photography, this time considering the intrusiveness of the photographic act form the "Kodak fiend" to the paparazzi.

This course is an elective in the anthropology major (does not fulfill a distribution requirement within the major) and is a Humanities and not a Social Science course.

ANTH 242 LANGUAGE AND GENDER (3) MENAIR 
MW 1400-1515

In many societies, differences in pronunciation, vocabulary choice, and/or communicative style serve as social markers of gender identity and differentiation. We will take a cross-cultural perspective, comparing language use in the U.S. with other parts of the world, especially non-Western societies. Questions to be addressed include: How does language use reflect or construct a person's sex, gender, or sexual orientation? How do language differences, where they exist, contribute to the social construction of gender differences in our and other cultures? How do these differences affect the lives/social identities of males/females? What do "male" and "female" mean, anyway? What factors besides gender lead to language differentiation, and how do they interact with gender? Is language itself sexist? If so, what can or should be done about it? Our readings will examine these and other questions to address how gender becomes an effect of language use, so that we can perceive gender as achieved through cultural forms and social institutions.

ANTH 243 LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD (3) DOBRIN 
TR 1530-1645

This course introduces students to the diversity of human language and the principles of linguistic classification. How many languages are spoken in the world, and how are they related? What kinds of features do languages share, and in what ways may they differ? In surveying the world's languages, we will focus on the structure and social situation of a representative language for each geographic region covered. We will also consider the outlook for linguistic diversity in the 21st century.

Prerequisites: one year of a foreign language or permission of instructor.

ANTH 260 INTRODUCTION TO INDIA (3) SENEVIRATNE
TR 1400-1515

A general introduction to the society and culture of India. Deals with kinship, caste, religion, music, dance and popular culture using ethnographic works, fiction and visual material.

ANTH 280 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY (3) LAVIOLETTE 
TR 0930-1045

This course provides a survey of world prehistory and historical archaeology, as well as an introduction to the history and goals of archaeological research, different approaches to the study of ancient societies and culture change, and archaeological methods. A main text provides the scaffolding for the course by introducing the kinds of knowledge that archaeologists have provided about the ancient and not-so-ancient world. Alongside this regionally and chronologically organized narrative, we will be examining the competing theoretical premises, and the many field and analytical techniques, that archaeologists use in their research.

ANTH 301 HISTORY AND THEORYOF ANTHROPOLOGY (4) SABEA
TR 1230-1345

This course - designed for students majoring in anthropology - reviews the history of the institutionalization of anthropology as a discipline and outlines the major approaches and debates that shaped the field from the 19th century to the present. It seeks to familiarize students with different anthropological frameworks for interpreting the world around us, treating such paradigms as products of specific cultural, political and historical contexts. We will trace the genealogy of certain ideas and examine how they are reconfigured and how they contribute to later debates. Histories, context and connections are thus central to our exploration of the relationship between authors, ideas and frameworks as they emerge in particular places and times and in response to specific sets of concern.

Students must enroll in one of the discussion sections in 301D.

ANTH 305 TRAVEL ACCOUNTS OF AFRICA (3) SABEA 
TR 1700-1815

The course explores how 18th- and 19th-century travel accounts about Africa have influenced ethnographic writing and popular views about the continent and its people. It traces the genealogy of methods of knowledge production, major concepts that are generated and inherited, underlying assumptions, and recurring images that have shaped the representation of places and peoples in Africa. We will analyze the accounts produced about Africa in terms of the symbolic, technical and ideological conventions used by the writers. We will pay special attention to the gender, nationality, and profession of the authors, the purpose for their travels, and the times and places they visited.

ANTH 326 GLOBALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT (3) BASHKOW
MW 1400-1515

Why are Third World people poor? How are they affected by globalization and by economic development programs promoted by international agencies like the World Bank? To answer these questions, we will begin by examining some taken-for-granted cultural features associated with modernity, and social issues surrounding recent economic transformations at home. We will then turn to a series of cases drawn from Latin American, African, Asian, and Pacific Island societies. We will ask: What are the intended and unintended consequences of internationally-funded economic development projects? How does the rhetoric that justifies such projects often distort the real nature of the problems which they would try to solve? Because approaches to development depend ultimately on ideas about the causes of inequality, we will compare Jared Diamond’s celebrated thesis that “the West” is wealthier than “the Rest” because of “guns, germs, and steel,” with more radical views suggesting that the West itself has played a primary role in creating and reinforcing inequality. Finally, we will consider several examples of development efforts that work or offer promise of hope. Coursework will consist of reading and discussion of the readings, and writing weekly reading response papers.

ANTH 332 SHAMANISM & HEALING (3) TURNER 
TR 1400-1515

The course delves into the sources of shamanism and ritual healing. It provides some understanding of their different logics, and therefore why they communicate and heal. The class brings to life the reports and experiences of contemporary non-Western shamanic and healing rituals, keeping respect for native interpretations in order to better understand the effectiveness of ritual. We will give emphasis to the human, personal experience of the events as process, and will use the in-depth studies of scholars who have become more than scholars and participants, indeed practitioners of the crafts about which they seek knowledge. The experiencing of shamanism and healing being the actual life of these crafts, we will learn how to approximate a sense of the ritual by enacting it. A term paper is required, also a book presentation and short papers during the term.

Meets College's Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

ANTH 339 ETHNOGRAPHY IN AMERICA (3) PERDUE & MARTIN-PERDUE
TR 1400-1515

This will be an upper level undergraduate course designed for students to become familiar with a selection of ethnographic works that have focused on various groups in America, defined ethnically, racially, regionally, or by class. To that end students will read and critique one or two ethnographies. Students will also conduct a "mini"- ethnographic study of an appropriate group, scene, or situation: Perhaps a nursing home, pool hall, church, hospital emergency room, festival or celebration. The point here is to gain some training in participant observation and to learn to "see," take notes, and write up the results. In class, discussion will consider some of the issues involved in ethnographic study: role of the ethnographer; ethics of field work; various ethnographic methodologies such as note taking, interviews, tape and/or video recording and photography.

ANTH 341 SOCIOLINGUISTICS (3) DANZIGER 
MW 1000-1050

Sociolinguistics is the study of the way language is used to express social relationships. Topics to be covered include language as an index of socio-economic class. Black English, male-female language, pidgin and Creole languages, the analysis of everyday conversation, and political, legal, and social issues affecting language use in multilingual societies, including ours. Midterm and final; field project involving observation of language use in the speech community.

Students must enroll in one of the discussion sections in 341D. Meets College's Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

ANTH 347 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE IN THE MIDDLE EAST (3) LEFKOWITZ 
TR 1400-1515

This course provides an introduction to the people, cultures, and histories of the Middle East, through an examination of language-use in contemporary Middle Eastern societies. The course focuses on Israel/Palestine, and the contract between Hebrew and Arabic, as a microcosm providing insight into important social processes-such as colonization, religious fundamentalism, modernization, and the changing status of women-affecting the region as a whole. Readings contrast ethnographic with novelistic representations of language, society, and identity. A primary concern will be to compare social scientific and literary constructions of self and other in the context of the political and military confrontation between Israel and Palestine. This is a lecture and discussion course. A number of feature films from the Middle East are incorporated into the course material. Requirements include four short essays and a book review.

Prerequisite: previous course in anthropology or Middle Eastern studies, or permission of the instructor.

ANTH 352 AMAZONIAN PEOPLES (3) MENTORE
MW 1530-1645

Native Lowland South American people have been portrayed as "animistic," "totemic," "shamanic," "mythologic," "Dreauduan," "slash and burn horticulturalists," "stateless," "gentle," "fierce," and much more. What do these anthropological portraits mean and what do they contribute to the collective body of Western intellectual thought? Is there any relation between such thinking and the experience of being "Indian" in Amazonian societies? Are there any other ways of understanding Amazonian social experiences? This course addresses these questions through a reading of the ethnography of the region.

Meets College's Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

ANTH 355 EVERYDAY LIFE IN AMERICA (3) DAMON 
MWF 0900-0950

Taking a production and exchange orientation to society, this course uses anthropological models to analyze aspects of the US experience in North America and the world. The models will be drawn from the anthropological analysis of exchange, rites of transition, and sacrifice. The primary aspects of United States culture to be examined will be the financial/productive center, political organization and elections (leading up to the dynastic politics of the present), and the nexus between war experiences and institutions and relations to the North American environment. The course begins with journalistic introductions to these areas, and then proceeds to the anthropological models. The last third of the course will be a seminar-like consideration of the three areas. Mondays and Wednesdays will be devoted to lectures, Fridays to discussions designed to move each student to a topic appropriate for a term paper. There will be two take-home essay-like midterm exams, and a final research/term paper.

This course will satisfy the Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 363 CHINESE FAMILY AND RELIGION (3) SHEPHERD
TR 1230-1345

This course will introduce students to anthropological analysis of the traditional Chinese forms of the Chinese family and popular religion, and their modern transformations. Topics to be covered include the dynamics of Chinese marriage and domestic life, gender roles, the religious underpinnings of Chinese family life in ancestor worship and the Chinese cult of the dead, marriage rituals, and the cult of filial piety. The forms of temple worship, the interaction of the Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian traditions, and the shamanic tradition will also be covered. Finally, attention will be paid to the changing role of the family and religion in 20th- and 21st-centuryChinese life.

This course will satisfy the Second Writing Requirement. Meets College's Non-Western Perspective Requirements.

ANTH 365 ASIAN AMERICA: FROM YELLOW PERIL TO BHANGRA BLOWOUT (3) HO
TR 9:30-10:45

This course introduces students to Asian American history, issues and communities within the framework of anthropological concepts and American race theories to familiarize students with the complexity surrounding the formation of Asian American identity, politics and culture. Students are also required to critically examine how ethnicity, race, gender, class, generational status, regionalization, and sexual orientation not only affect Asian Americans, but also other racialized populations in the United States. Course requirements will include one midterm, two analysis papers and a final qualitative research project.

ANTH 371 CITIES IN HISTORY (3) UPTON
TR 1100-1215

This lecture course examines the history of cities around the world, locating urban form in its social, cultural, political, and symbolic contexts. We will look at the history of cities from the origins of urbanism to the present, but will focus on recent centuries. 

ANTH 384 ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE EAST (3) WATTENMAKER
TR 1530-1645

This course is an introduction to the prehistory of the Middle East, focusing mainly on the period from ca. 9000 to 2500 BC. Through both lectures and discussion, we will examine the archaeological evidence for the origins of food production (the domestications of plants and animals), the earliest village communities, the origins of social ranking, nomadism, the rise of state societies and the first cities, and the origins of writing systems. Regions of study include the Levant, Anatolia, Egypt, and Greater Mesopotamia (Iraq, Iran, Syria and southeast Turkey). Emphasis will be placed on evaluating hypotheses on cultural organization and change in the ancient Middle East, as well as comparison of cultural developments in different parts of the Middle East. Questions of interest to anthropologists working in other parts of the world, such as the origins of the state, will be examined in light of findings from this region.

ANTH 385 FOLKLORE IN AMERICA (3) PERDUE
TR 1100-1215

This course will focus primarily on Anglo- and Afro-American traditional culture and, within that domain, deal with problems of definition, origin, collection, and analysis of the main genres of folklore--narrative and song.

ANTH 401A SENIOR SEMINAR: ANTHROPOLOGY OF COLONIALISM IN VIRGINIA (3) HANTMAN
R 1400-1630

This course considers the history and cultural contexts of European colonialism in Virginia in the 16th and 17th centuries, and its long-term effects on Native Americans, African Americans, and Europeans. Through archaeological and documentary sources, we will examine the different responses of Indian people to the arrival of Europeans. Archaeology and ethnohistory will also be used to assess the long-term impact of tobacco cultivation and European expansion on Native Americans and the enslaved African Americans who arrived in the 17th century. Finally, we will examine the lingering effects of colonial policies into the 20th and 21st centuries.

ANTH 401B SENIOR SEMINAR: POSTCOLONIAL INEQUALITIES & ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY (3) KHARE 
T 1530-1800

A discussion of social inequalities, mainly class, caste, race, religion, age and gender under postcolonial and post-industrial conditions in a comparative cultural and regional perspective. A distinct (but not exclusive) focus will be on contemporary India and America. Very different yet in some ways very similar, these two distant cultures, societies and countries afford distinct opportunities to study entrenched inequalities of caste, class, race and religion, alongside a pursuit of democracy, equality, and civil and human rights. The last third of the course will be devoted to reviewing related and relevant concerns, interests and directions now evident in the organization and activities of American anthropology today.

ANTH 401C SENIOR SEMINAR: LANGUAGE & EMOTION (3) LEFKOWITZ 
TR 1100-1215

This course looks at the nexus of language, culture, and emotion, exploring the field of emotion from the perspective of cultural anthropology and sociolinguistics. Specific topics covered include: emotion in the natural vs. social sciences; cross-cultural conceptions of emotion; historical change in emotion discourses; emotion as a theory of the self; the grammatical encoding of emotion in language; (mis-) communication of emotion; and emotion and the construction of racialized and gendered identities.

 


Undergraduate & Graduate courses:

ANTH 529A PROPHECY & POWER IN NEW GUINEA 3.0 BASHKOW
M 1800-2030

What is prophetic religion? How does prophecy and spirit possession help people empower themselves and make their lives meaningful? In this seminar we will explore models for understanding prophetic religion that differ markedly from the familiar images of Islamic and Judaic religion. We will begin with an intensive study of a particular ethnographic case, the New Guinea prophetic movement known as the “Taro Cult” which arose among Orokaiva peoples in about 1912. In the course, we will examine the Taro Cult in the context of Orokaiva history and ethnography, before opening it up to comparison with later prophetic movements and “cargo cults” elsewhere in New Guinea, some examples of prophetic movements in Africa, and a contemporary study of New Guinea charismatic Christianity. Coursework will consist of reading, writing weekly papers on the reading, and discussion of the reading in class.

ANTH 529B TOPICS IN THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF RELIGIOUS SPECIALISTS (3) SIHLÉ
W 1530-1800

This seminar aims at investigating a number of important questions in the anthropology of religion from a perspective centered on religious specialists. After a brief survey of questions of terminology and typology, and of the debates they are still occasioning, major points of focus will be: (i) how religious complexity, in the sense of situations in which religious specialists of different traditions exist side by side, has been approached in the recent decades of scholarship; (ii) a critical examination of a duality particularly prominent in the study of religions of salvation, with seminal formulations by Weber and Dumont, namely that of renunciation and in-the-worldness; (iii) the examination of the tension between purity and power exhibited by a number of complex religious systems. The ethnographic readings will focus primarily but not exclusively on Asian, notably Buddhist and Hindu, contexts.

ANTH 529C RELIGION, CULTURE AND NATION IN ASIA (3) SENEVIRATNE 
M 1400-1630

An exploration of the cultural context of nationalism in Asia. Religion and culture in the articulation of nation and state in selected ethnographic examples.

ANTH 542 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE (3) CONTINI-MORAVA
TR 1230-1345

We will survey a number of modern schools of linguistics, both American and European, trying to understand each approach in terms of its historical context, the goals it sets itself, the assumptions it makes about the nature of language, and the relation between theory and methodology. Grades will depend on: four or five written homework assignments that ask you to look at some data from a particular theoretical perspective; an oral presentation on a scholar or school of linguistics, a take-home, open-book final exam; and evidence (from class discussion) that you have been doing the readings, which are an essential part of the course.

ANTH 543 AFRICAN LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (3) SAPIR
TR 1400-1515

The course will cover the classification of African languages, selected grammatical typologies, African lexicography, and examples of oral literature. Students will give presentations on these topics with respect to specific languages. The intention of the course is to investigate the considerable variety of linguistic types present in sub-Saharan Africa.

Permission of the instructor is required.

ANTH 577 CULTURAL INVENTORIES (3) WAGNER 
TR 1230-1345

Cultural Inventories uses the work of Jorge Luis Borges and Ludwig Wittgenstein to explore the "inventory" side of the language-phenomenon, the quixotic logic or order of experience that is manifest in what is said, or meant, or intended in the use of language, rather than in its syntax, grammar, or basic structure. The logic of "what to say." Readings and discussion in seminar; course paper.

ANTH 587 Archaeozoology (3) WATTENMAKER
W 1530-1800

This laboratory course provides students with the background and skills needed to analyze animal bones from archaeological sites. Emphasis will be placed on the potential of faunal analysis for contributing to anthropological issues, such as the domestication of animals, political economy, the origins of the state, and the organization of urban economies. Class sessions will include lectures and laboratory work. Lectures will include a critical survey of the methodological approaches and techniques used to address anthropological questions through the analysis of faunal remains. Topics such as research design, strategies of field collection of faunal remains, and data analysis and interpretation will be covered. In the laboratory, students will learn to identify faunal remains to species, to determine age and sex of species, to distinguish between wild and domestic animals, to recognize bone pathologies, and to observe cultural modification of bones, such as butchering marks. The course requirements include a series of short papers based on laboratory analysis of archaeological faunal remains, and a final paper. The final paper will involve the analysis of a small archaeological collection of faunal remains from the ancient city of Kazane (Turkey), focusing on a particular time period (e.g. prehistoric, early historic) and part of the site (e.g. house, palace). Each student will share his or her findings with the rest of the class. We will compare and contrast results, and discuss implications of findings. Cooperation and discussion between students is strongly encouraged.

This course is intended for advanced undergraduate Anthropology or Archaeology majors, advanced undergraduate students in related fields such as Zoology and Classics, and graduate students in Anthropology (or related fields such as Architecture/Historical Archaeology) with a specialization in archaeology.

ANTH 592 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF COLONIAL EXPANSIONS (3) LAVIOLETTE 
T 1800-2030

This seminar explores the archaeology of colonialism by foregrounding European colonial enterprises from the 15th-20th centuries against a backdrop of other expansions that have been studied archaeologically, drawing on recent literature from multiple disciplines to help inform our analyses of archaeological studies. We will trace the evolution of contact models used to interpret sites on colonial frontiers, and examine how expansions such as Uruk, Roman, and Bantu are conceptualized in terms other than those of colonialism. The core of the class will be close readings of case studies bringing to bear the above considerations. The work load will include a major research paper plus active participation in weekly discussion, and preparation of discussion questions and commentary.

 


Graduate Courses:

ANTH 701 HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY (3) METCALF
MW 1400-1515

This course explores the diverse intellectual roots of Anthropology from the 18th century to the mid 20th. We attempt to keep clear the differences and interweavings amongst U.S., English, and French traditions that lay the groundwork for late 20th- and early 21st-century Anthropology. 

ANTH 703 ETHNOLOGY II: THE ETHNOGRAPHIC BASIS (3) SAPIR
MW 1400-1515

This is a required course for graduate students in their third semester. Its purpose is to give a close reading to a range of primary ethnographies and similar documents, some classic, others recent. Since these documents provide the basis for whatever truth-claims anthropologists make it is essential that we learn to probe them, to find out what their authors learned and how they learned it, whether their propositions carry conviction, and how they make themselves readable, assuming they do. 

ANTH 705 DATA ANALYSIS (3) SHEPHERD 
TR 1530-1645

This course is designed to follow a course on ethnographic methods and research design, and assumes students have had some experience practicing fieldwork methods of data gathering. (For some students the implications of the course material for research design will remain the primary focus). We will review selected methods and design issues, and proceed to the next stages of the research process: organizing data, analysis, writeup, and re-design. The course will be run as both seminar and writing workshop. Students will be expect to make numerous class presentations, and to submit drafts of work in progress. Students will experiment in their writing and analysis with a variety of conceptual approaches and ethnographic styles.

ANTH 740 LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY (3) DANZIGER
T 1400-1640

This is an advanced introduction to the study of language from an anthropological point of view. No prior coursework in linguistics is expected, but the course is aimed at graduate students who will use what they learn in their own anthropologically oriented research. Topics include an introduction to such basic concepts in linguistic anthropology as language in world-view, the nature of symbolic meaning, language and nationalism, universals and particulars in language, language in history and prehistory, the ethnography of speaking. The implications of each of these topics for the general conduct of anthropology will be addressed. Evaluation is based on take-home essays and problems-sets which are assigned throughout the semester.

The course is required for all Anthropology graduate students. It also counts toward the M.A. in Linguistics.

ANTH 741 SOCIOLINGUISTICS (3) DANZIGER 
MWF 1000-1050

Sociolinguistics is the study of the way language is used to express social relationships. Topics to be covered include language as an index of socio-economic class. Black English, male-female language, pidgin and Creole languages, the analysis of everyday conversation, and political, legal, and social issues affecting language use in multilingual societies, including ours. Midterm and final; field project involving observation of language use in the speech community.

ANTH 747 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE IN THE MIDDLE EAST (3) LEFKOWITZ 
TR 1400-1515

This course provides an introduction to the people, cultures, and histories of the Middle East, through an examination of language-use in contemporary Middle Eastern societies. The course focuses on Israel/Palestine, and the contract between Hebrew and Arabic, as a microcosm providing insight into important social processes-such as colonization, religious fundamentalism, modernization, and the changing status of women-affecting the region as a whole. Readings contrast ethnographic with novelistic representations of language, society, and identity. A primary concern will be to compare social scientific and literary constructions of self and other in the context of the political and military confrontation between Israel and Palestine. This is a lecture and discussion course. A number of feature films from the Middle East are incorporated into the course material.

ANTH 759 HISTORY & ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE CITY (3) UPTON 
T 1530-1800

This proseminar will explore some of the major works in the anthropology and history of modern cities. Each week we will read a classic and/or current work in the field. As a final project, each student will undertake a critical review of the literature of a significant anthropological or historical theme in the study of modern cities.

ANTH 763 CHINESE FAMILY AND RELIGION (3) SHEPHERD
TR 1230-1345

This course will introduce students to anthropological analysis of the traditional Chinese forms of the Chinese family and popular religion, and their modern transformations. Topics to be covered include the dynamics of Chinese marriage and domestic life, gender roles, the religious underpinnings of Chinese family life in ancestor worship and the Chinese cult of the dead, marriage rituals, and the cult of filial piety. The forms of temple worship, the interaction of the Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian traditions, and the shamanic tradition will also be covered. Finally, attention will be paid to the changing role of the family and religion in 20th- and 21st-century Chinese life.

ANTH 771 CITIES IN HISTORY 3.0 UPTON 
TR 1100-1215

This lecture course examines the history of cities around the world, locating urban form in its social, cultural, political, and symbolic contexts. We will look at the history of cities from the origins of urbanism to the present, but will focus on recent centuries.

ANTH 784 ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE EAST (3) WATTENMAKER
TR 1530-1645

This course is an introduction to the prehistory of the Middle East, focusing mainly on the period from ca. 9000 to 2500 BC. Through both lectures and discussion, we will examine the archaeological evidence for the origins of food production (the domestications of plants and animals), the earliest village communities, the origins of social ranking, nomadism, the rise of state societies and the first cities, and the origins of writing systems. Regions of study include the Levant, Anatolia, Egypt, and Greater Mesopotamia (Iraq, Iran, Syria and southeast Turkey). Emphasis will be placed on evaluating hypotheses on cultural organization and change in the ancient Middle East, as well as comparison of cultural developments in different parts of the Middle East. Questions of interest to anthropologists working in other parts of the world, such as the origins of the state, will be examined in light of findings from this region.