1. University of Virginia
  2. Arts & Sciences

Course Descriptions - Fall 2005

Courses that meet Major Area Requirements:

Prin. of Social Analysis Ethnography Archaeology Linguistics
223,232,332,355,505
522,526,529B,577
251, 60,324,350,352
357,363,393,529A
280,308,383,584
588
240,244,504,548
549
Non-Western perspectives for the majors 
(for the major: note that some of these courses do not meet the College's Nonwestern requirement)
101,240, 260,324,332,350,352,357,363,393
Senior Seminars 
401A,401B,401C,401D

Undergraduate Courses:

ANTH 101 INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY (3) MENTORE
MW 1100-1150

In this course we will introduce how and why anthropology examines the uniformities and regularities it perceives as existing in social life -- the perceived order that members of society produce so as to live together. We will read, write, and talk about these instances of eradicated contradictions not as isolated and self-contained institutions but as part of a meaningful and systemic thought process. The study of kinship and marriage, love and moral obligation, economic production and exchange, religious beliefs and values, as well as political power and its distribution will be our principal topics. Students must enroll in one of the discussions sections in 101D. Satisfies College's Non-Western Perspective Requirement.

ANTH 223 FANTASY & SOCIAL VALUES 3.0 WAGNER
TR 0930-1045

An examination of imaginary societies, in particular those in science fiction novels, to see how they reflect the problems and tensions of real social life. Attention is given to "alternate cultures" and fictional societal models. A "cultural imaginary" allows us to think carefully about implications of gender, technology, and social existence that we, for very good reasons, are not allowed to experiment upon. Three papers, mandatory attendance in lecture.

ANTH 232 ANTHROPOLOGY OF RELIGION 3.0 METCALF
MW 1100-1150

Religion has been central to the century-old project of anthropology to understand other people's conceptions of the world they live in. The analysis of ritual has been one of the discipline's main approaches to that goal. This class asks common-sense questions about the meaning of rituals, and shows how far we have come in answering them.

ANTH 240 LANUAGE AND CULTURE 3.0 PERKOWSKI
MWF 0900-0950

survey of topics having to do with the relationship between language, culture, and society. We will consider both how language is described and analyzed by linguists, and how data from languages are used in related fields as evidence of cultural, social, and cognitive phenomena. Topics include: nature of language, origins of language, how languages change, use of linguistic evidence to make inferences about prehistory, the effects of linguistic categories on thought and behavior, regional and social variation in language, and cultural rules for communication. Satisfies College's Non-Western Perspective Requirement.

ANTH 244 LANGUAGE AND CINEMA 3.0 LEFKOWITZ
TR 1230-1345

This course takes a historical look at the role that speech and language have played in Hollywood movies. We will look at the artistic controversies, aesthetic theories, and technological challenges that attended the transition from silent to sound films as a backdrop to the main discussion of how gender, racial, ethnic, and national identities were constructed and reproduced through the representation of speech, dialect, and accent. This course provides an introduction to the study of semiotics but requires no knowledge of linguistics or of film studies.

ANTH 251 CONTESTED COMMUNITIES: RACE IN THE AMERICAS 3.0 BRAND
MW 1400-1515

An introduction to the anthropology of race and racism in the Americas. We will read from ethnographies of North, Central and South America and of the Caribbean in order to interrogate issues including: racial identity formation, experiences of racism, diasporic communities, constructions of blackness/whiteness/Otherness and more. Course readings will include writings by W.E.B. Du Bois, Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Price, Natasha Barnes and others. Satisfies Ethnography requirement for Anthropology majors.

ANTH 260 INTRO. TO INDIA 3.0 SENEVIRATNE
TR 1400-1515

A general discussion of the society and culture of India. Deals with patterns of kinship, caste, and religion, and the aesthetic life with special reference to music and dance. No prior knowledge of India is required.

ANTH 280 INTRO. TO ARCHAEOLOGY 3.0 LAVIOLETTE
MW 1000-1050

An introduction to the goals of archaeological research and how these have changed since the birth of the profession; different theoretical approaches to the study of ancient and more recent societies and culture change; archaeological field and lab methods, and important sites and the transformations they embody in world prehistory and historical archaeology. Students must register for a discussion section.

ANTH 301 HISTORY AND THEORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4.0 BASHKOW
MWF 1000-1050

This course is designed for students majoring in anthropology: it presents a broad historical outline of major approaches and debates in the field, and seeks to foster skills in critically reading and discussing social and cultural theory. By reading sample works we will learn about the approaches of social evolutionism, diffusionism, Boasian particularism, l'Année Sociologique, British structural functionalism, French structuralism, symbolic anthropology, Marxist anthropology, cultural materialism, neo-evolutionism, structural history, postmodernism, Feminist anthropology, practice theory, and globalization/transnational studies. We will attempt to understand past anthropological theories in relation to key debates of their time, while also considering their larger cultural-historical context and their enduring relevance. We will ask: What are the sources (and kinds) of modern anthropological concepts of culture? How have scholars learned, and been forced to unlearn, about humanity in studying other cultural worlds? The course stresses close reading and analysis of primary texts. There are no examinations. However, all students should be aware that this is an exceptionally demanding course that is reading- and writing-intensive. Students must enroll in one of the discussion sections in 301D.
Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 308 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS 3.0 HANTMAN
T 1400-1630

This class is intended for upper-level archaeology students who have completed ANTH 280 (Introduction to Archaeology) or ANTH 381 (Field Methods) and are interested in doing further study in archaeological research design (relating questions to methods to data). We will critically examine current approaches to site survey and excavation. Topics to be included throughout the semester are sampling in archaeology, typology and classification, lithic analysis, ceramic analysis, ethnobotanical studies, bioarchaeological studies, and curation. Course requirements include the completion of an excavation and analysis simulation project early in the semester, a weekly lab analysis of artifact types with 1-2 page write-ups, and a final 10-15-page paper expanding on one of the research methods discussed in class.

ANTH 324 PLANTATIONS IN AFRICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 3.0 SABEA
TR 1230-1345

This course seeks a comparative analysis of plantations in Africa and the Americas by examining them as places of work and spaces of sociality. It examines the historical linkages between Africa and the Americas in the establishment and reproduction of plantations as they relate to the colonial empires, the differentiated entrenchment of capitalism around the globe, and correspondent movement of ideas, people and things. We will examine the lives people made on plantations as documented in the practices and experiences of slaves, workers, planters, and traders, and explore the socio-economic and political implications of plantations of the localities in which they have been operating.

ANTH 332 SHAMANISM AND HEALING 3.0 TURNER
TR 1400-1515

The course delves into the sources of shamanism and ritual healing. It provides some understanding of their different logics and therefore why they communicate and heal. The class brings to life the reports and experiences of contemporary non-Western shamanic and healing rituals, keeping respect for native interpretations in order to better understand the effectiveness of ritual. We will give emphasis to the human, personal experience of the events as process, and will use the in-depth studies of scholars who have become more than scholars and participants, actual practitioners of the crafts about which they seek knowledge. The experiencing of shamanism and healing being the actual life of these crafts, we will learn how to approximate a sense of the ritual by enacting it.

ANTH 350 READINGS IN ETHNOGRAPHY 3.0 KHARE
T 1530-1800

A comparative discussion of selected ethnographies, both old and new, illustrating different styles of ethnographic writing, interpretation, analysis, and use. The readings will range from viewing ethnography as a scientific, "factual" record of distant peoples to those reflexive, experiential and issue based on the others' and one's own society and culture. The discussion will focus on gender difference; birth and motherhood; disease and dying; alongside new ethnographies on travel and culture, and anthropology of the self and culture at home. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 352 AMAZONIAN PEOPLES 3.0 MENTORE
MW 1530-1620

Native Lowland South American people have been portrayed as "animistic," "totemic," "shamanic," "mythologic," "Dreauduan," "slash and burn horticulturalists," "stateless," "gentle," "fierce," and much more. What do these anthropological portraits mean and what do they contribute to the collective body of Western intellectual thought? Is there any relation between such thinking and the experience of being "Indian" in Amazonian societies? Are there any other ways of understanding Amazonian social experiences? This course addresses these questions through a reading of the ethnography of the region. Students must enroll in a section of 352D. Satisfies College's Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

ANTH 355 TRANSFORMING EVERYDAY LIFE IN AMERICA 3.0 DAMON
MW 1100-1150

Taking a production and exchange orientation to society, this course uses anthropological models to analyze aspects of the US experience in North America and its extension into the world. The models will be drawn from the anthropological analysis of exchange, rites of transition, sacrifice and mythology. The course will be organized in two parts. The first will provide a journalistic introduction to United States culture focusing on its financial/productive center, political institutions, and national ideologies. Anthropological, i.e. analytical, models will be reviewed as part of this introduction. The second part will examine the place of war, athletics, and movies in US culture. The collective readings of this second part are to be used by each student as a point of departure for his or her own research project and paper. Several short thematic and response papers will organize the first part. A research paper anchors the second part. Students must enroll in a section of 355D. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 357 PEOPLES & CULTURES OF THE CARIBBEAN 3.0 PEREZ
TR 1100-1215

This course examines the cultures, societies, and histories of the Caribbean, focusing primarily on the English-, Spanish- and French-speaking Caribbean. Thematically, the course focuses on processes of racialization, effects of globalization, patterns of family and kinship, experiences of labor and migration; religion and resistance; and tourism.

ANTH 363 CHINESE FAMILY AND RELIGION 3.0 SHEPHERD
TR 1100-1215

This course will introduce students to anthropological analysis of the traditional Chinese forms of the Chinese family and popular religion, and their modern transformations. Topics to be covered include the dynamics of Chinese marriage and domestic life, gender roles, the religious underpinnings of Chinese family life in ancestor worship and the Chinese cult of the dead, marriage rituals, and the cult of filial piety. The forms of temple worship, the interaction of the Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian traditions, and the shamanic tradition will also be covered. Finally, attention will be paid to the changing role of the family and religion in 20th- and 21st-century Chinese life. This course will satisfy the Second Writing Requirement. Meets College's Non-Western Perspective Requirements.

ANTH 383 NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 3.0 HANTMAN
MW 1400-1515

This course provides an overview of the contributions of archaeological research to our understanding of the long term history of North America, particularly the history of indigenous Native American people. Following an introductory study of the diverse history of archaeological research in North America from the 18th century to the present, the course shifts focus to specific topics of interest. Among these are the debate over the timing and process of the initial peopling of the Americas, the development of distinctive regional traditions, discussions of the origins of domestication and regional exchange systems and the rise and fall of chiefdoms in prehistory, colonial encounters between Europeans and Native Americans, and the historical archaeology of Europeans and Africans in Colonial America. Course requirements include a mid-term, final, and one seminar paper (15-20 pp).

ANTH 393 ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE EAST 3.0 LEFKOWITZ/WATTENMAKER
MW 1530-1645

This course provides anthropological perspectives on the complex and diverse region popularly known as the Middle East. Knowledge of the region and its people is approached through integration of a range of sub-disciplinary perspectives, including linguistic anthropology, archaeology, ethnography, and folklore. One aim of the course will be to relate Middle Eastern ethnography to broader theoretical debates within the field of anthropology. A second aim will be to critique popular cultural constructions of the "the middle east." Topics to be covered include: the history of the Middle East, the history of the West's interest in the Middle East, and discourses-of-history in Middle East nationalisms; the role of identities and discourses-of-identity in the current political organization of the Middle East; and transformations in the relationship of language to culture in the Middle East. No prerequisites.

ANTH 401A SOCIAL INEQUALITIES: RELIGIOUS, MODERN AND POSTCOLONIAL 3.0 KHARE
TR 1100-1215

A seminar on comparative social inequalities in societies traditional and modern, with a focus on how different religious, modern and postcolonial criteria and social forces have historically played their roles in continuing and complicating social inequalities along the markers of caste, class, race and gender difference in contemporary India, Britain and the U.S. The seminar will conclude with a relevant review of new trends of emphasis and discussion in the American Anthropological Association. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 401B EVOLUTION OF PUEBLO SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 3.0 PLOG
W 1400-1630

An examination of the long-term development of Pueblo social and ritual organization in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest. Weekly discussions will examine a series of archaeological and ethnographic monographs in order to examine culture change from the prehistoric era to the historic period. Topics to be emphasized include Hopi and Keresan social and ritual organization, particularly the development of katsina ritual and moieties. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 401C MARRIAGE IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE 3.0 SHEPHERD
TR 1530-1645

This seminar will look at the varieties of marriage found cross-culturally and historically. Includes examination of polygyny and polyandry, Goody's theory of the historical origins of the European marriage system, legal controversies over recognition of same sex marriages. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 401D GLOBALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 3.0 BASHKOW
MW 1400-1515

Why are Third World people poor? How are they affected by globalization and by economic development programs promoted by international agencies like the World Bank? To answer these questions, we will begin by examining some taken-for-granted cultural features associated with modernity, and social issues surrounding recent economic transformations at home. We will then turn to a series of cases drawn from Latin American, African, Asian, and Pacific Island societies. We will ask: What are the intended and unintended consequences of internationally-funded economic development projects? How does the rhetoric that justifies such projects often distort the real nature of the problems which they would try to solve? Because approaches to development depend ultimately on ideas about the causes of inequality, we will compare Jared Diamond's celebrated thesis that "the West" is wealthier than "the Rest" because of "guns, germs, and steel," with more radical views suggesting that the West itself has played a primary role in creating and reinforcing inequality. Finally, we will consider several examples of development efforts that work or offer promise of hope. Coursework will consist of reading and discussion of the readings, one in-class presentation, and writing weekly papers on the readings and films. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

 


Undergraduate & Graduate courses:

ANTH 504 LINGUISTIC FIELD METHODS 3.0 CONTINI-MORAVA
M 1700-1930

In this course we will work with a native speaker of an "exotic" language (i.e., a language that is not commonly taught in the U.S., hence likely not to be familiar to any of the students in the class). We try to figure out the phonological and grammatical structure of the language based on data collected from the native speaker consultant in class. Attendance is therefore mandatory. Assignments include one paper on phonology, one on morphology, and one on syntax (the nature of the assignment may vary depending on the particular language being studied).

ANTH 505 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS: DOING ETHNOGRAPHY, WRITING
ETHNOGRAPHY 3.0 HO
W 1700-1930

Ethnography is a detailed description and analysis of a particular community. This course will introduce students to different qualitative research methods ("doing ethnography") and writing styles ("writing ethnography"). The assigned ethnographies, mini-fieldwork projects, and in-class video screenings will explore issues of authorship, research ethics and accountability, reconstructed reality, and differential power dynamics between the researcher and the respondent. This course is designed for students (1) about to embark on research projects and (2) who have recently returned from preliminary fieldwork. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 522 ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY 3.0 DAMON
M 1900-2130

Organized in three parts, this course introduces students to anthropologically useful ideas in marxism and world system theory, the use of 'exchange theory' over the last 100 years, and research in newer versions of ecological anthropology as it bears on the social nature of production. An important theme running through each section will be relationships between production, circulation and display. Students will write 5-10 page papers on each of the three parts, increasingly bending their papers to their longer-term research interests. Individualized oral reports on tangential readings are also expected, and will enable students to structure aspects of the course to their topical or regional interests. Although designed for graduate students, undergraduates are encouraged to consider the course to round out their undergraduate careers and help define their futures.

ANTH 526 HISTORY PRODUCTION AND COLLECTIVE MEMORY 3.0 SABEA
R 1700-1930

This course is an examination of the meaning and relationship between the past and present, memory and history in anthropological debates. Specifically, it seeks an analysis of the conceptual and methodological boundaries between history production and collective memory paradigms. Themes addressed will include the making of public and official history, alternative histories, the politics of memory, ownership of the past, writing and archives, and the role of narratives of the past in the drawing of boundaries between groups, along the lines of race, gender, ethnicity, nation, and religion. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 529A BUDDHISM AND SOCIETY 3.0 SENEVIRATNE
M 1700-1930

An exploration of the sociology of Theravada Buddhism. Discusses the social, political and economic conditions of the rise of Buddhism, and the nature of its subsequent institutionalization among the peasants of South and Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, Burma and Sri Lanka. Includes an examination of political modernization and its impact on the relations between Buddhism and the state, and the tension between revivalism and secularism.

ANTH 529B THE OUTSIDERS: AFRICAN AMERICAN PIONEERS IN AMERICAN ANTHORPOLOGY 3.0 FRASER
TR 0930-1045

There is a mistaken notion that African American scholars were absent both from Anthropology's intellectual development and the debates which drew on anthropological concepts and research. This course seeks to correct that perception. With an emphasis on the period between 1900 and 1960, the course will document the work and presence of African American pioneers in Anthropology and explore the politics and practices that render their work invisible to us today. The course will also try to understand how these individuals carved an intellectual space for themselves inside and outside the discipline under racist and exclusionary conditions. We will end by assessing the contributions made and lessons offered to contemporary Anthropology and Anthropologists by these hidden ancestors. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH 548 LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT 3.0 DANZIGER
T 1400-1630

There is almost always more than one way to think about any problem. The fact that different individuals often find different solutions to the same problem is partly a matter of differences in their individual history and experience. But could using a particular language be one kind of experience which makes certain cognitive strategies seem more natural than others to individuals? This course examines the proposal that the different ways of making sense of the external world could correspond to language-related cultural presuppositions. The classic hypothesis of linguistic relativity as enunciated by Benjamin Lee Whorf is examined in the light of recent cross-cultural psycholinguistic research, and highlighting the interplay between social intelligence, linguistic structure and general cognition. In the course of this discussion we ask how culturally-particular ways of talking about language itself might actually reflect and reinforce the common-sense ideas about the nature of language that underlie most linguistic research. During the term, students will prepare short written summaries of assigned readings, and a longer research paper.

ANTH 549 LANGUAGE ENDANGERMENT 3.0 DOBRIN
R 1400-1640

Over the next century it is predicted that, if the current trend continues, between 50 and 90 percent of the world's languages will cease to be spoken. Many of these cases represent voluntary "shifts" in allegiance from the traditional language of a speech community to a more prestigious alternative. What are the forces that impel speakers toward language shift? What happens, linguistically and culturally, in the process? Can–and should–anything be done to slow the trend, and if so, what, and by whom? This course addresses the issues of language endangerment, death, maintenance, and revitalization, with an eye toward understanding the cultural, political, practical, and linguistic dimensions of the problem and its potential solutions. In addition to regular participation in class discussion, course work will include short weekly writing assignments summarizing the readings, student presentations of case studies from the literature, and a take-home final essay exam. Course is limited to the instructor's permission. Course satisfies the second writing requirement.

Course does not satisfy the linguistics requirement for cognitive science.

ANTH 577 CULTURAL INVENTORIES 3.0 WAGNER
TR 1230-1345

This class uses the work of Jorge Luis Borges and Ludwig Wittgenstein to explore the "inventory" side of the language-phenomenon, the quixotic logic or order of experience that is manifest in what is said, or meant, or intended in the use of language, rather than in its syntax, grammar, or basic structure. The logic of "what to say." Readings and discussion in seminar; course paper.

ANTH 584 ARCHAEOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO COMPLEX SOCIETIES 3.0 WATTENMAKER
T 1700-1930

This seminar course examines key themes and controversies of interest to archaeologists and ethnohistorians studying complex societies. We will first examine theoretical approaches to ranked or "middle scale" societies and, with this background, will then consider state societies and empires. Reading will include problem-oriented case studies dealing with a range of relevant topics, such as the archaeology of households, gender and ethnicity, exchange systems and inter-cultural dynamics in various parts of the world. Drawing on these case studies, we will address the question of how social hierarchies and inequalities are constructed, maintained and undermined in archaeologically documented complex societies. Course Satisfies Second Writing Requirement.

ANTH/ARH 585 METHODS IN HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY 3.0 NEIMAN
W 1700-1930

This course offers an introduction to analytical methods in historical archaeology, their theoretical motivation, and their practical application in the interpretation of the archaeological record. Our principle< historical focus is change in the often conflicting economic and social strategies pursued by Europeans, Africans, and Native-Americans, and their descendents during the 17th and 18th centuries in the Chesapeake region. The class combines lecture and discussion with computer workshops, in which students have a chance to explore historical issues raised in the reading and lectures using real archaeological data.

The methods we will explore include seriation-based approaches to dating sites and inferring the social identity of their occupants, the spatial analysis of artifact distributions across sites to infer how architectural space was used, and space-syntax analysis to uncover patterns of change in house plans and understand the implications for ongoing social dynamics among their users.

ANTH 588 ANALYTICAL METHODS IN ARCHAEOLOGY 3.0 PLOG/MOST
TR 0930-1045

This course provides an introduction to the use of analytical procedures, database applications, statistics, and quantitative methods in anthropology. Analytical techniques used to generate, describe, and analyze archaeological and anthropological data sets are emphasized, but experience has shown that students in sociology, psychology, and nursing have little problem applying the statistical methods learned to their own data sets. The course focuses on research design, database construction, hypothesis testing, probability and sampling, and univariate statistics. No prior knowledge of statistics is necessary; background in anthropology, archaeology, or a related field is required.

 


Graduate Courses:

ANTH 701 HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY 3.0 HANDLER
TR 1100-1215

This is a required course for graduate students in their first semester. It explores the diverse intellectual roots of Anthropology from the 18th century to the mid 20th. We attempt to keep clear the differences and interweavings amongst US, English, and French traditions that lay the groundwork for late 20th- and early 21st-century Anthropology.

ANTH 703 ETHNOLOGY II: THE ETHNOGRAPHIC BASIS 3.0 METCALF
MW 1400-1515

This is a required course for graduate students in their third semester. Its purpose is to give a close reading to a range of primary ethnographies, some classic, others recent, which demonstrate a range of abstract theoretical paradigms being applied to real-world situations. Since ethnographies provide the basis for whatever truth claims anthropologists make, it is essential that we learn to probe them to find out what their authors learned and how they learned it, whether their propositions carry conviction, and how they make themselves readable, assuming they do.

ANTH 740 PRINCIPLES OF LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY 3.0 DANZIGER
M 1400-1630

This is an advanced introduction to the study of language from an anthropological point of view. No prior coursework in linguistics is expected, but the course is aimed at graduate students who will use what they learn in their own anthropologically oriented research. Topics include an introduction to such basic concepts in linguistic anthropology as language in world-view, the nature of symbolic meaning, universals and particulars in language, language in history and prehistory, the ethnography of speaking, the nature of everyday conversation, and the study of poetic language. Through readings and discussion, the implications of each of these topics for the general conduct of anthropology will be addressed. Evaluation is based on take-home essays and problem-sets which are assigned throughout the semester. The course is required for all Anthropology graduate students. It also counts toward the "Theory" requirement for the M.A. in Linguistics.

ANTH 782 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS 3.0 HANTMAN
T 1400-1630

This class is intended for upper-level archaeology students who have completed ANTH 280 (Introduction to Archaeology) or ANTH 381 (Field Methods) and are interested in doing further study in archaeological research design (relating questions to methods to data). We will critically examine current approaches to site survey and excavation. Topics to be included throughout the semester are sampling in archaeology, typology and classification, lithic analysis, ceramic analysis, ethnobotanical studies, bioarchaeological studies, and curation. Course requirements include the completion of an excavation and analysis simulation project early in the semester, a weekly lab analysis of artifact types with 1-2 page write-ups, and a final 10-15-page paper expanding on one of the research methods discussed in class.

ANTH 787 ADVANCED TOPICS IN AFRICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 3.0 LAVIOLETTE
T 1400-1630

An intensive examination of recent important works pertaining to African archaeology, both in theory and practice, and where relevant, anthropological or historical writing for a wider audience that would be of interest to students of African archaeology. Permission of the instructor.